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Clinical Study: Massage therapy for the orthopedic patient: A Review. Research:
This review analyzes the effectiveness of massage therapy for the orthopedic patient. A considerable portion of the population experiences orthopedic problems, and many use massage therapy to treat these problems. A review and analysis of literature on the subject yielded tentative results.
It appears that massage therapy may be effective for orthopedic patients with lower back problems and potentially beneficial for patients with other orthopedic problems. Massage therapy appears to be safe, has high patient satisfaction, and reduces pain and dysfunction.
Clinical Study: Lower back pain is reduced and range of motion increased after massage therapy.
Massage therapy was compared to relaxation for chronic low back pain. By the end of the study, the massage therapy group, as compared to the relaxation group, reported less pain, depression and anxiety and improved sleep. They also showed improved trunk and pain flexion performance, and their serotonin and dopamine levels were higher.
Massage therapy is effective in reducing pain, stress hormones and symptoms associated with chronic low back pain.
Clinical Study: Lower back pain and sleep disturbance are reduced following massage therapy
Massage therapy versus relaxation therapy with chronic lower back pain patients was evaluated for reducing pain, depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances, for improving trunk range of motion (ROM) and for reducing job absenteeism and increasing job productivity. Thirty adults with lower back pain for a duration of at least 6 months participated in the study. On the first and last day of the 5-week study, participants completed questionnaires and were assessed for ROM.
By the end of the study, the massage therapy group, as compared to the relaxation group, reported less pain, depression, anxiety and sleep disturbance. They also showed improved trunk and pain flexion performance.
Clinical Study: Migraine headaches are reduced by massage therapy.
Twenty-six adults with migraine headaches were randomly assigned to a wait-list control group or to a massage therapy group, and received two 30-minute massages per week for five consecutive weeks.
The massage therapy subjects reported fewer distress symptoms, less pain, more headache free days, fewer sleep disturbances, and they showed an increase in serotonin levels.
Clinical Study: Massage therapy reduced anxiety and enhances EEG pattern of alertness and math computations.
Adults were given a chair massage, and control group adults were asked to relax in a chair for 15 minutes, two times per week for five weeks. Frontal delta power increased for both groups, suggesting relaxation. The massage group showed decreased alpha and beta power, and increased speed and accuracy on math computations.
At the end of the five-week period depression scores were lower for both groups but job stress scores were only, for the massage group.
Clinical Study: High blood pressure and associated symptoms were reduced by massage therapy.
High blood pressure is associated with elevated anxiety, stress and stress hormones, hostility, depression and catecholamines. Massage therapy and progressive muscle relaxation were evaluated as treatments for reducing blood pressure and its associated symptoms. Adults who had been diagnosed as hypertensive received ten 30 minute massage sessions over five weeks or they were given progressive muscle relaxation instructions (control group). Sitting diastolic blood pressure decreased after the first and last massage therapy sessions and reclining diastolic blood pressure decreased from the first to the last day of the study.
Although both groups reported less anxiety, only the massage therapy group reported less depression and hostility and showed decreased cortisol.
Clinical Study: Massage therapy and relaxation effects on University dance students.
Thirty female university dancers were randomly assigned to a massage therapy or relaxation therapy group. The therapies consisted of 30-minute sessions twice per week for five weeks.
Both groups reported a less depressed mood and lower anxiety levels. However, cortisol decreased only for the massage therapy group. Both groups reported less neck, shoulder, and back pains after the treatment sessions and reduced back pain throughout the study.
Clinical Study: Sports massage. A comprehensive review.
This review includes studies on sports massages and their effect on lactate clearance, delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), muscle fatigue, the psychological effect of massage, and injury prevention and treatment.
Results from published literature support a positive trend for massage to benefit athletic recovery and performance.
Clinical Study: Does post-exercise massage treatment reduce delayed onset muscle soreness? A systematic review.
Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a frequent problem after unaccustomed exercise. No universally accepted treatment exists. Massage therapy is often recommended for this condition but uncertainty exists about its effectiveness. Seven controlled clinical trials were reviewed in order to determine the effectiveness of massage therapy to relieve delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) after a bout of strenuous exercise.
Most of the trials were burdened with serious methodological flaws, and their results are far from uniform. However, most suggest that post-exercise massage may alleviate symptoms of DOMS.
Clinical Study: Therapeutic massage in older persons: research issues.
Growing recognition of the importance of holistic nursing interventions is resulting in a revival in the use of therapeutic massage. Massage contributes to health and healing through enhancement of relaxation, and is a safe, caring, and inexpensive intervention. Therapeutic massage research using older people is reviewed for identification of its theoretical framework, design, outcome variables, sample, procedures, instruments, analyses and results. To establish a scientific basis for therapeutic massage in the future, it is critical that nurses include the following key elements in their research studies: clear definitions, procedures for massage that include type(s) of massage performed, part of the body massaged, and length of time of massage; and analyses that control for the pre-massage level of the variable of interest. Research variables need to focus on concepts that have major health consequences such as agitation, immune status, and pain.
Nine clinical studies were reviewed for the type of trial, quality of research design, and research results. Six of the studies were placebo controlled. Six studies demonstrated significant effects from therapeutic massage including a reduction in systolic blood pressure and pulse, an increase in skin temperature, decrease in heart rate, an increase in skin temperature in men, increased relaxation, decrease in anxiety scores and decrease in agitation. Three studies reported no significant differences. An outline is provided of the key elements of good scientific research design for future studies.
Clinical Study: Effects of foot reflexology on fatigue, sleep and pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of foot reflexology on fatigue, sleep and pain. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. Electronic database and manual searches were conducted on all published studies reporting the effects of foot reflexology on fatigue, sleep, and pain. Forty-four studies were eligible including 15 studies associated with fatigue, 18 with sleep, and 11 with pain. The effects of foot reflexology were analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2.0. The homogeneity and the fail-safe N were calculated. Moreover, a funnel plot was used to assess publication bias.
Foot reflexology had a larger effect on fatigue and sleep and a smaller effect on pain. This meta-analysis indicates that foot reflexology is a useful nursing intervention to relieve fatigue and to promote sleep.
Studies: Effects of Massage in Acute and Critical Care.
In this systematic review of 22 studies on the effect of massage on relaxation, comfort and sleep, 8 out of 10 research studies indicated that massage significantly decreased anxiety or the perception of tension.
Seven out of 10 studies showed that massage produced physiologic relaxation. Three studies found massages to be effective in reducing pain. The results on sleep promotion were inconclusive.
Clinical Study: Massage for low-back pain.
Thirteen randomized trials were included in this systematic review.
Results suggest that massage might be beneficial for patients with subacute and chronic non-specific low-back pain, especially when combined with exercises and education. However, further studies are needed to confirm these conclusions and to assess the impact of massage on return-to-work, and to determine cost-effectiveness of massage as an intervention for lower back pain.